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Solved Assignment
SERVICE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
Section. 1 Questions 
Marks - 10  Any 3

Section A

1 .        Discuss about nature and role of services in economy.
2 .        Discuss the reasons of growth of service sector.
3 .        What do you think are the main reasons for including the element of ‘People’ in the marketing mix for services?
4 .        What are two kinds of physical evidence? Discuss.
5 .        What are the various product strategies available to a service firm? What are the implications of each?   
6 .        What are the problems with the Product Lifecycle?       
7 .        Discuss the factors in determining layout and design.     
8 .        Discuss about Human Factor in Services .


Section 2
No Case Study. Just need to Answer all below questions.

Ques1: Describe forecasting demand for services?
Ques2: Discuss Inventory Management for improved service delivery?
Ques3: List the service attributes required by companies to improve their competitive capabilities by using service inventory.

Section 3
Multiple Choice

Question No: 1  The .................. proposition is essentially the business proposition, but seen from both the business and the customer/user perspective.
Merchandising
Service
Management function
Logistics function

Question No: 2 ................ is a customer-oriented feature with service response based on customer input, one-to-one solutions to customers' requirements, direct online communications with customer and customer service centers that are intended to help customers solve their issues.
DRM
CRM
MRM
CPRM

Question No: 3 The .................... deals with issue of treatment of customers in sense reduce wait time and improvement of service.
Inventory and distribution channels
Displays
Warehouses
Queue management

Question No: 4 Focusing on the ...................... provides a distinct and novel way to think about service management.
Merchandising
Supply chain
Customer loyalty
Push-Pull Boundary

Question No: 5 ................ allows each additional item in service inventory to increase the variety of offerings exponentially.
brand-name specialty retailer
Modularity
Investment
Merchandise quality

Question No: 6 .................... inventory also lowers costs by fulfilling the basic roles of inventory.
Service
Merchandise
business intelligence software
SKUs

Question No: 7 ................. is a significant factor in determining the kind of fixtures to be used by a retailer since it provides him with a unique selling proposition.
Buying
push-pull boundary
Level of competition
Cataloguing

Question No: 8 CRM applications also help firms manage ..................... more effectively across the stages of relationship initiation, maintenance, and termination.
World
Economy
Customer relationships
Environment

Question No: 9 .......................... can occur in single, batch or bulk, arrival as distribution of time, arrival in finite population or infinite population.
Money
Sales Promotion
Customer arrival
Multiple software programs

Question No: 10 ........................ looks at available resources for customer service, queue structure to avail the service and preemption of service.
Multi-channel retailing
Cataloguing
Service Mechanism
Space Management

Question No: 11 According to McCarthy, the elements of ................. are 4Ps - product, price, place (i.e. distribution) and promotion.
marketing mix
Customer loyalty
Instant gratification
Merchandising

Question No: 12 The ..................... in advertisement would substantially simplify the task of professionals since the persuasion process would be found proactive.
Meeting manager requirements
sensitivity
creativity
life expectancy

Question No: 13 ................... are also unique in service industries and typically public relations take a front seat, while advertising is more of ‘corporate advertising’.
inventory and distribution channels.
Promotional issues
Instant gratification
market basket analysis

Question No: 14 .................... can use six basic elements, namely, product scope, market scope, value, timing, identification of the beneficiary and protection against competition.
Merchandising
service provider
Customer loyalty
Breakage

Question No: 15 The ................ hear the responsibility of advertising locally at micro level.
retailer
executives
Customer
Shopkeeper

Question No: 16 The ..................... plays a very important role in marketing a service; therefore, managing word-of-mouth publicity is important.
Inventory
Retail loyalty programs
business intelligence software
public opinion

Question No: 17 .................... is an area which requires utmost managerial attention.
Staff motivation
Promotion
Consumers
Premiums

Question No: 18 ............................... greatly influences the perception of a service brand.
Multiple software programs
Sales Promotion
Consumer participation
Buying

Question No: 19 ................. are frequently used to give an element of tangibility.
Premiums
Sales Promotion
Characters and themes
Multiple software programs

Question No: 20 .................. helps in making the message more attractive and enhancing its impact.
Multi-channel retailing
Characters and themes
Testing the effectiveness
Creativity

Question No: 21 ....................... are defined by the input provided for the process, the process itself, and the output generated from the process.
A critical retail function
business intelligence
A critical management function
Business processes

Question No: 22 The ................. represents a majority of the economic output of many developed economies, so there are good economic to reasons improve service-based processes.
services sector
sports sector
business sector
retail sector

Question No: 23 ......................... is a customer focused approach to service innovation and improvement.
inventory and distribution channels.
Service blueprinting
Warehouses
Storage

Question No: 24 .................... is the demand for a service from customer when they want something.
Value demand
Supply chain
Failure demand
market basket analysis

Question No: 25 ....................... is a demand that only exists because the initial demand was not satisfied properly.
brand-name specialty retailer
Value demand
Investment
Failure demand

Question No: 26 A ....................... is one of the most cost effective ways of achieving a certain degree of process standardization.
Inventory
process manual
business intelligence software
Supply chain

Question No: 27 .................. seems to be regarded as a cure-all for services, and even whole countries and economies (such as Europe), to return to the so-called "growth track."
Buying
Scanning
tracking
Innovation

Question No: 28 ................... are dynamic and perishable in nature and this can often lead to instances of idle capacity or opportunity loss.
Inventory
Services
A critical retail function
Investment
Question No: 29 ...................... makes it difficult to retrieve information in a timely manner and to perform analysis of the data.
Money
Sales Promotion
Storage
Multiple software programs

Question No: 30 The service sector of the economy constitutes ................ of the world’s total GDP and employs 40% of global labour force.
62%
78%
45%
23%

Question No: 31 The ................... is composed of the four P’s: product, price, place (distribution) and promotion.
A critical retail function
business intelligence
critical management function
traditional marketing mix

Question No: 32 ............... in services refers to the actual procedures, mechanisms, and flow of activities by which the service is delivered- the service delivery and operating systems.
Spam
Brick and Mortar
Process
Business Relationships

Question No: 33 ..................... can be used to build strong association in the customers’ minds and service can be differentiated from the competitor’s similar offering.
drawback
Supply chain
Physical evidence
Storage

Question No: 34 The ...................... includes all of the tangible representations of the service such as, brochures, letterhead, business cards, report format, signage, equipment, etc.
Merchandising
Physical evidence
Customer loyalty
Internet technology

Question No: 35 .................. refers to all human actors who play a part in service delivery and thus influence the buyer’s perceptions; namely, the firm’s personnel, the customer, and other customers in the service environment.
Outsourcing
People
Investment
Merchandise quality

Question No: 36 .................... is very important concept in services, which refers to the physical presence of the customer in the system.
Customer contact
Outsourcing
Physical evidence
Technical support

Question No: 37 .......................... has a vital role in services, because of the large number of service businesses which involve personal interaction between the service provider and the customer, and service being provided by a person, not a machine.
Personal selling
Customer contact
Physical evidence
Technical support

Question No: 38 The .................... element of the services marketing mix forms a vital role in communicating the positioning of the service to customers.
promotion
Personal selling
Technical support
Investment

Question No: 39 ........................, refer to the seamless integration of the various sales and service channels provided by the retailer to the customer.
Money
Sales Promotion
Integrated Multi-channel Retailing (IMCR)
Multiple software programs

Question No: 40 ................. is any kind of paid, non-personal method of promotion by an identified organisation or individual.
Advertising
Cataloguing
Storage
Strategising





Solved Assignment
Process Analysis & Theory of Constraints
Section 1
Ans Any 3.

1 .        Explain the meaning of process analysis & process-based management.      
2 .        Explain the Interface of process analysis with other disciplines       
3 .        Explain the process of benchmarking in detail.         
4 .        Discuss the Introduction to TOC applications in operations improvement.  

5 .        Discuss the HYPOTHESIS TESTING.        
6 .        Discuss the meaning & concept of CCPM.
7 .        Elaborate the Problem Associated With Company’s Existing Scheduling Technique          
8 .        Discuss the Project panning, Project execution and continuous improvement


ASSIGNMENT B
Case Detail : There is no case study you need to Answer the questions:-
Please give your answer in at least 25 words and press save and continue button.

Ques1: What do you understand by DBR? Discuss its approach & scheduling
Ques2: What do you understand by synchronous manufacturing? Discuss the Symptoms of poor synchronization.
Ques3: Elaborate the Problem Associated With Company’s Existing Scheduling Technique

Assignment C

Question No: 1 What is Critical chain project management (CCPM) is a method of planning and ……………….. projects?
Managing
handling
supervision
administration

Question No: 2 ………………………… can determine a size of project, feeding, and resource buffers.
Critical chain methodology
Process chain methodology
Event chain methodology
None of Above

Question No: 3 The transition from the traditional silo-based business paradigm to supply chain management requires ………………. changes in organizational structures, cultures, and business strategy.
Controllable & Dynamic
Traumatic
Never changed & controllable
Static & Stable

Question No: 4 Critical chain project management is based on methods and algorithms derived from ……………………………………….
Theory of Constraints
Throughput Accounting
Event chain methodology
Process chain methodology

Question No: 5 DBR methodology provides a mechanism for protecting total throughput of the system by the use of Time-buffers?
True
False

Question No: 6 Theory in operations has undergone significant change in the past ……………. with a shift from an economics cost based view
40 years
50 years
70 years
90 years

Question No: 7 The benefit of clearly communicating the project status through buffer management and regular reporting was acknowledged as key to gaining what was referred to as ‘ ………………………… information’ across the project
TA
TOC
SIT
JIT

Question No: 8 Critical chain is an alternative to ……………………………
Process analysis
Critical Path Analysis
Scenario
Environment

Question No: 9 ICT is nothing more than a ………………… for supply chain transformations and is not a solution for such transformations.
Storage
accelerator
Catalyst
Strategizing

Question No: 10 The cumulative capability model emerged and subsequently led to theoretical models that encompass flow, trade-offs and continuous.
Customer
Mediator
Expert
Cumulative

Question No: 11 The choice of process flow can depend on what stage in the product life cycle the firm is at?
Economic Activity
Sale Activity
Retail Activity
Logistics Activity

Question No: 12 A …………………….. is an organized way of collecting and structuring data, its purpose is to collect the facts in the most efficient way:
Histogram
Dots or Tally
Check Sheet
Control Charts

Question No: 13 The ……………………discipline develops and maintains the supporting artifacts that are used during Analysis and Design.
Requirement
Environment
Test
Organizational

Question No: 14 The ……………………… is a tool for analyzing the relationship between the product life cycle and the technological life cycle
Product-process matrix
Process analysis
Product based management
Process selection

Question No: 15 A process flow structure generally falls into two categories: it can be either a job shop or a flow shop?
Incomplete statement
Not a justified statement
False
True
Question No: 16 A …………………………. is the characteristic of a given product that causes the buyer to purchase it rather than the similar product of a competitor.
Distinctive competence
Competitors
Management
Organization

Question No: 17 The continuous flow process is similar to the …………………….. as it has a fixed sequence and a set pace
Life cycle
Process line
Product line
Assembly line

Question No: 18 The choice of process flow can depend on the …………in the product life cycle the firm is at?
World
Stage
Level
Class

Question No: 19 ………… is an integral part of merchandising
Money
Sales Promotion
Storage
Strategising

Question No: 20 Job shop process are sometimes referred to as ‘…………………..’.
Customer shops
Retail Shops
Medicinal shops
Sweat shops

Question No: 21 A company should …………… focus on productivity and price recovery to be as profitable as possible
Mutually
Independently
Inter-dependably
Universally

Question No: 22 …………………. is in industrial engineering generally defined as the relation of output (i.e. produced goods) to input (i.e. used resources) in the manufacturing transformation process.
Productivity
Profitability
Performance
Production

Question No: 23 ………………… is strongly influenced by the prices a company pays for its input and receives for its output
Productivity
Profitability
Performance
Production

Question No: 24 There is no sense in denying that productivity and profitability are interdependent, but it is also a fact that they do not always go hand in hand
Incomplete statement
Not a justified statement
False
True

Question No: 25 Fast operations reduce the level of in-process inventory between micro operations, as well as reducing administrative overhead.
Incomplete statement
Not a justified statement
False
True

Question No: 26 ………………………… can be described as an important aid to making judgements and to making decisions.
Performance measurement
Performance Evaluation
Performance Scheduling
Performance Management

Question No: 27 The …………………. includes financial performance measures giving the results of actions already taken
The Sink and Tuttle framework
TOPP
Performance Pyramid
Balanced scorecard

Question No: 28 Shorter cycle times suggest delivering value to the organization quickly and do not have money unnecessarily tied up in ………….. (Unreleased code).
Account
Inventory
Level
Record

Question No: 29 Throughput is the rate at which a system achieves its goal.
Cycle time
Throughput
Setup time
Lead time

Question No: 30 ………………… is the time from the moment the customer places an order (the moment you learn of the requirement) to the moment it is ready for delivery’.
Cycle time
Throughput
Setup time
Lead time

Question No: 31 What is Theory of constraints (TOC)?
systems-management philosophy
Retail Management philosophy
Logistics Management Activity
Organizational activity

Question No: 32 The Theory of Constraints is a methodology for identifying the most important …………………….:
Fixed factor
Variable factor
Limiting factor
None of Above

Question No: 33 ……………….capacity is an excess amount of production capacity that is assembled in the work stations that are positioned upstream from the constraint operation.
Spring
Sprint
Smart
Saturated

Question No: 34 Application of conventional accounting may actually …………….. throughput and profits.
Decrease
Increase
Improve
Downfall

Question No: 35 Constraints accounting is an accounting reporting technique, consistent with a process of ongoing improvement and implementation of TOC
Not applicable
Un-justified
False
True

Question No: 36 Major assumption of TA is that once a certain capacity level exists, all the operating expenses associated with it are no longer ……………………………..
Actionable or changeable
Dominant
Operational
Functional

Question No: 37 TOC’s critical chain concept removes the implicit assumption of infinite capacity from the …………… management domain
Functional
Geographical
Mathematical
Project

Question No: 38 The ……………………… tree helps identify the obstacles to implementation
Transition
Prerequisite
Future reality
Current reality

Question No: 39 Traditional finished goods inventory, as well as excess work-in-process and excess raw materials inventories, are liabilities in the ………….. world.
LTP
TA
TOC
None of above

Question No: 40 Most of the constraints faced in systems originate from policies, not physical things.
In-appropriate
Not justified
Incorrect
Correct







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BUSINESS POLICY & STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
ASSIGNMENT A
1 .        What is the importance of writing a Mission statement. Does it hold any impact on the Profitabilty ,Growth and Market Leadership of a company.          

2 .        Discuss the use of VRIO Framework for analyzing Resources and Capabilites       

3 .        What does it take to maintain a Strategic Position of Leadership in Cola Wars. Comment  why Coke and Pepsi are often engaged in the offensive frontal attacks.      

4 .        Differentiate between Concentric and Conglomerate Diversification while enumerating relevant examples            

5 .        Central to any successful marketing strategy is an understanding of customers and their  needs at first.Cite some relevant Customer centric Marketing Industry.            

6 .        What are the recent trends of Liberalisation,Privatisation and Globalisation of Indian Economy in different sectors? Also throw some light on e-governance?     

7 .         Discuss strategic planning & business system which is used across organizations world wide to align business activities to the vision & improve the performance for more effective results?      

8 .        What are the barriers to entry that may be defined for the New Entrants to combat future competition? Discuss the other 5 Forces as suggested by M.Porter in context of Indian Airline players.


ASSIGNMENT B
Case Study

Case Detail:
After a dismal 2009, Hindustan Unilever Ltd (HUL), India’s largest consumer company by revenue, has seen volume growth return to double digits in three successive quarters this calendar year. This comes after volume either fell or grew marginally in the corresponding year-ago quarters. It also broke a run of 40 quarters during which volume didn’t expand by more than single digits.

A year ago, the maker of Lux, Wheel, Dove and Knorr seemed to be floundering, caught in a spiral of price cuts and shrinking margins.

The comeback has taken place amid a pitched battle with Procter and Gamble Home Products Ltd (P&G), which also spilled over from the retail shelves into the courts as they fought over claims made in advertisements.

That fight is reminiscent of its campaign in the 1980s to tackle Nirma, which was making inroads at the lower end of the market, by launching Wheel, now India’s largest detergent brand with 18% market share. It also brings to mind the 2004-05 laundry war with P&G, during which both the companies took a hit on their margins, but eventually HUL emerged stronger.

Keeping pace: Consumer products on display at a supermarket in Delhi. Close to 90% of HUL’s portfolio is fresh—either a new product or one that’s been relaunched over the last 12 to 18 months.

The Indian arm of the Anglo-Dutch Unilever Plc, which has been present in the country since 1933, did several things that seem to be working for it. The company completely revamped the product range, cut prices to keep the competition on its toes, tweaked advertising to better position the offerings, reduced its inventory levels and reached even further into rural India, opening up new markets for branded goods.

What changed at HUL that allowed to it to succeed this time around? Gopal Vittal, executive director of the company’s home and personal care (HPC) division, which accounts for 70% of revenue, characterizes it as an internal transformation.

The Comeback

“The company has now become comfortable in a schizophrenic culture,” he said. He was referring to the new attitude of the company—more aggressive, flexible and nimble enough to take up both large and small opportunities that are sharply different in scope.

The gain has not come without its share of pain. For instance, HUL was forced to reduce the price of Rin detergent and bars by close to 30% following the launch of Tide Naturals, a 30% cheaper variant of the P&G flagship brand Tide. Then came a round of increases in content and pack sizes.

The aggressive price cuts have resulted in a decrease of overall sector profit, meaning all companies need to work that much harder and sell that much more merely to stay in place, leave alone getting profit growth to hasten.

This battle between the two global consumer giants was inevitable, given that growth is tapering in the developed markets. Cincinnati-based P&G, which made a serious push into India only in 2009, although it has been present in the country since 1989, wants to expand as fast as possible in emerging markets. HUL has a year-to-date market share of 34.5% in detergents and 45.9% in shampoo versus P&G’s 9.6% and 23%, respectively.

While the rivalry has exacted its toll, it has seen both companies benefiting from the expansion in the market. “Despite risks associated with the tactics in laundry, P&G seems confident in its strategy and has expressed a desire to continue competing with Unilever and other companies in contested areas,” Dibadj said in his report.

While P&G has been seeking to make up for lost time, HUL, on the other hand, has single-mindedly sought to “unblinkingly defend (its) market leadership,” as Harish Manwani, president, Asia Africa, Unilever executive and non-executive chairman of HUL, put it at a press briefing on 28 July.

That has meant a vigorous churning of the product range with as many as 41 launches during the year. Close to 90% of HUL’s portfolio is fresh—either a new product or one that’s been relaunched over the last 12 to 18 months.

The relaunches include the companies so-called local jewels—Breeze, Liril, Moti, Pears and Hamam—aimed at taking on homegrown rivals such as Godrej Consumer Products Ltd (GCPL), which makes Godrej No. 1 and Cinthol, and Wipro Ltd’s Wipro Consumer Care and Lighting division, which has brands such as Santoor. HUL also reintroduced what it calls power brands—Lifebuoy and Clinic Plus. It also launched premium products such as anti-ageing formulas and hair conditioners under existing brands such as Ponds, Dove and Lakme.

Earlier strategies had centred around big categories and big brands. In 2000, it sought to focus on 30 power brands. In 2005-06, the Masstige(Mass Prestige) strategy sought to make premium brands available to the masses through appropriate pricing.

That focus on size has widened to accommodate smaller segments.

“We are as passionate, as determined about doing a Rs10 crore opportunity as we are about Rs2,000 crore,” says Vittal.

Rivals recognize the efforts made by the company.

The company wants to tap growth at both ends of the pyramid. The large categories at the bottom, such as detergents and soaps, are growing well, while at the top, growth is explosive, Vittal said.

As the economy continues to boom—India boasts of the second fastest pace of growth globally—greater prosperity will put more disposable income in the hands of a larger number of consumers, all with newly awakened aspirations. Or so the argument runs.

This is already happening in the rural areas, helped along by some of the government’s social welfare programmes such as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, better infrastructure and increased job opportunities. Meanwhile, in urban India, consumers are looking for more choice and better products.

“Companies have to decide between high volumes and high-value growth. This is a tactical decision,” said Sunil Duggal, chief executive officer of Dabur India Ltd, which makes personal and Ayurvedic products such as Vatika and Uveda.

That won’t be an easy call to make considering HUL’s size and reach and the scope of its ambition.

“In the next five years, the market is going to be 2-2.5 times its present size,” Vittal said. Right now, his key concern is to ensure that HUL will be nimble enough to keep pace with the rapid evolution of the market.
1.) Conduct the Portfolio Analysis of Various Brands of HUL w.r.t Categories/Product Lines.
2.) Comment on the Relaunches as a result of Turnaround Strategies adopted by Company
3.) “Companies have to decide between high volumes and high-value growth. This is a tactical decision” .Comment








ASSIGNMENT C
Question No.  1           Marks - 10
Which of the following lists is comprised of support activities:        
human resource management, information systems, procurement & firm infrastructure      
customer service, information systems, technology development, and procurement            
 human resource management, technology development, customer service, and procurement         
 human resource management, customer service, marketing and sales, and operations        

Question No.  2           Marks - 10
Which of the following is true about business strategies?     
 An organization should stick with its strategy for the life of the business.  
 All firms within an industry will adopt the same strategy.   
 Well defined missions make strategy development much easier.     
 Strategies are formulated independently of SWOT analysis.           

Question No.  3           Marks - 10
Which of the following is an example of competing on the basis of differentiation?           
  A firm offers more reliable products than its competitors.  
  A firm's products are introduced into the market faster than its competitors'.       
 A firm's distribution network routinely delivers its product on time.          
 firm manufactures its product with less raw material waste than its competitors.   

Question No.  4           Marks - 10
The two internal elements of SWOT analysis are      
  strengths and weaknesses
 opportunities and threats
 strengths and opportunities
 weaknesses and threats

Question No.  5           Marks - 10
The impact of strategies on the general direction and basic character of a company is        
  short ranged
 medium range
 long range
 temporal


Question No.  6           Marks - 10
What can be defined as the art and science of formulating, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objectives?           
Strategy formulation
 Strategy evaluation
 Strategy implementation
 Strategic management

Question No.  7           Marks - 10
Which group would be classified as a stakeholder?  
  Banks
Suppliers
  Employees
 All of these

Question No.  8           Marks - 10
 The fundamental purpose of an organization's mission statement is to        
  create a good human relations climate in the organization
 define the organization's purpose in society
 define the operational structure of the organization
 generate good public relations for the organization

Question No.  9           Marks - 10
What analytical tool has four quadrants based on two dimensions: competitive position and market growth?       
 Competitive Profile Matrix
Internal-External Matrix
 Grand Strategy Matrix
 SPACE Matrix

Question No.  10         Marks - 10
The primary benefit sought from restructuring is      
  Employee involvement.
Cost reduction.
  Increased morale.
 Increased number of hierarchical levels in the organization.

Question No.  11         Marks - 10
Cash cows are always in        
   Introductory industry
Growing industry
 Mature industry
 Declining industry

Question No.  12         Marks - 10
Which of the following resources is used by all organizations to achieve desired objectives?         
   Financial resources,
Physical resources,
 Human resources
 All of the mentioned options

Question No.  13         Marks - 10
Walls” ice cream purchase “Polka” in order to capture the market. Such kind of integration is called:       
 Forward Integration
  Backward Integration
 Horizontal Integration
 Product Development

Question No.  14         Marks - 10
The _______________ has its own business strategy, objectives and competitors and these are often differ from parent company.         
   Strategic Business Unit structure
Matrix structure
 Divisional structure
 None of given option

Question No.  15         Marks - 10
Can best be described as short-term in nature.          
   Annual objectives
Tenure
 Mission statements
 Strategies

Question No.  16         Marks - 10
Which of these is often considered the first step in strategic planning?       
   Establishing goals and objectives
Developing a vision statement
 Making a profit
 Developing a mission statement

Question No.  17         Marks - 10
Which of the following are Porter's generic strategies?         
   Low price, differentiation, focus
Cost leadership, differentiation, focus 
Price leadership, differentiation, focus
 Low cost, differentiation, focus differentiation

Question No.  18         Marks - 10
Which matrices are also known as Portfolio matrices?          
   SPACE and BCG matrix
 IE and BCG matrix
 TOWS and IE matrix
 SPACE and TOWS matrix

Question No.  19         Marks - 10
Conglomerate diversification is another name for which of the following?
   Related diversification
Unrelated diversification
 Portfolio diversification
  Acquisition diversification

Question No.  20         Marks - 10
Restructuring is also referred to as    
   De-layering.
Starting over.
 Diversifying.
 Job security

Question No.  21         Marks - 10
Hofer’s matrix is a fifteen cell matrix in which businesses are plotted in terms of their competitive position &     
  Relative profit
Relative market share
 Growth rate
 Stage of product/market evolution
Question No.  22         Marks - 10
Functional managers are responsible  
   for a single area of activity
 to the upper level of management and staff
  for complex organizational sub-units
  for obtaining copyrights and patents for newly developed processes and equipment

Question No.  23         Marks - 10
The degree to which jobs are standardized and guided by rules and procedures is called:  
   Work specialization
Centralization
 Decentralization
 Formalization

Question No.  24         Marks - 10
Which factor has been the most rapidly changing component in an organization’s general environment in the past quarter-century?         
   Global
Economic
 Social
 Technological

Question No.  25         Marks - 10
The process of collaborative goal setting by a manager and subordinate; the extent to which goals are accomplished is a major factor in evaluating and rewarding the subordinate’s performance. It is called:  
 Management by objective
 Management by resources
 Management by authority
 Management by system

Question No.  26         Marks - 10
An organization that assigns specialists from different functional departments to work on one or more than one projects being led by project managers is called -------------   
 Team Organization
 Virtual Organization
 Matrix organization
 Learning Organization


Question No.  27         Marks - 10
This is an example of a global strategy which is  low in  risk as it avoids the cost of establishing production operations in another country            
   Franchising
 Licensing
  Export
   globalisation

Question No.  28         Marks - 10
In a__the activities are grouped according to functions of management such as finance, accounting, purchasing.
product/ market structure
 Line organistion
 staff organisation
 functional structure

Question No.  29         Marks - 10
Is characterized by direct lines of authority flowing from top to bottom of the organizational hierarchy and the lines of responsibility flowing in an opposite but equally direct manner   
   flat organisation
Line organistion
 functional organisation
 informal organisation

Question No.  30         Marks - 10
Is the process of evaluating the employee’s performance on the job in terms of the requirements of the job.         
   performance appraisal
Controlling
 review
 Analysis

Question No.  31         Marks - 10
Under this method, the worker is given training at the workplace by his immediate supervisor      
  on the site training
 offline training
 on the job training
 on demand training

Question No.  32         Marks - 10
Unbroken line of authority is known as___   
   Line of command
 hierarchy of commnd
 Command
 Chain of command

Question No.  33         Marks - 10
Are the guidelines to decision making.          
  Objectives
Goals
 Policies
 decisions

Question No.  34         Marks - 10
Refers to the formal, established pattern of relationships among the various parts of a firm or any organisation.   
 Organisation
Organistionl structure
 Organisational culture
 Organisation environment

Question No.  35         Marks - 10
A company's ability to meet its short-term financial obligations is measured by which of the following ratios?     
  liquidity ratios
profitability
 activity
 leverage

Question No.  36         Marks - 10
The competencies or skills that a firm employs to transform inputs into outputs are            
   tangible resources.
 intangible resources
 organizational capabilities.
 reputational resources

Question No.  37         Marks - 10
The "balanced scorecard" supplies top managers with a _____________ view of the business.      
   long-term financial
 detailed and complex
 simple & routine
 fast & comprehensive

Question No.  38         Marks - 10
A marketing department that promises delivery quicker than the production department's ability to produce is an example of a lack of understanding of the    
   synergy of the business units.
 need to maintain the reputation of the company.
 organizational culture and leadership
 interrelationships among functional areas and firm strategies.

Question No.  39         Marks - 10
Which one of the following should consider in economy while conducting environmental analysis?         
   GNP
Transport
 Unemployment
 Channel of distribution

Question No.  40         Marks - 10
Which of the following shows the process of creating something new?       
   Innovation
Modeling
 Business model
 Research



AMITY SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS
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Consumer Behavior
Assignment A
1.         What is perceptional experience? Discuss different aspects of perception and its impact on consumer behavior.        

2 .        Would a consumer be more likely to follow a central route or a peripheral route to persuasion when deciding what type of personal computer to buy? Why? Explain how a marketer might use your answer to construct an effective ad for a personal computer?           

3 .        ‘Consumer behaviour as a field of study examines both direct and indirect influences on consumption decisions’. Discuss. Also, highlight the importance of understanding consumer behaviour for developing marketing strategies.       

4 .        Write a short note on opinion leaders. Explain the impact opinion leaders create in success of a product category.        

5 .        What is cognative learning theory? Explain the concept with the help of relevant examples.          

6 .        How would reference group impact the sale of a perticular brand? Explain the impact celibrities create on sale of a brand.      

7 .        Explain the concept of diffusion. How can a marketer use diffusion to ensure better acceptance of his/ her brand in the marketspace?     

8 .        Explain the difference between (a) Consumer Behavior and Consumption Behavior
(b) Consumer behavior and buyer behavior   




Assignment B
Case Detail :
Domino's entered India in 1996 through a franchise agreement with Vam Bhartia Corp. The first outlet was opened in Delhi. With the overwhelming success of the first outlet, the company opened another outlet in Delhi. By 2000, Domino's had a presence in all the major cities and towns in India. Pizza Hut entered India in June 1996 with its first outlet in Delhi. Initially, the company operated company-owned outlets. However, keeping in line with its worldwide policy where Pizza Hut was gradually making a shift from company-owned restaurants to franchisee owned restaurants, Pizza Hut made the shift in India too. Pizza Hut had four company-owned franchisees - Universal Restaurants Pvt. Ltd. (Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan), Specialty Restaurants Pvt. Ltd. (Punjab), Dolsel Corporation (Gujarat, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh), Pizzeria Fast Food Pvt. Ltd. (Pune and Tamilnadu) and Wybridge Holdings (Mumbai).

When Domino's entered the Indian market, the concept of home delivery was still in its nascent stages. It existed only in some major cities and was restricted to delivery by the friendly neighborhood fast food outlets. Eating out at 'branded' restaurants was more prevalent. To penetrate the Indian market, Domino's introduced an integrated home delivery system from a network of company outlets within 30 minutes of the order being placed. However, Domino's was not the trendsetter so far as home delivery was concerned. Delhi based fast food chain, Nirula's was the first to start free home delivery in 1994. But where Domino's stole the market was its efficient delivery record. Goutham Advani (Advani), Chief of Marketing, Domino's Pizza India, said, "What really worked its way into the Indian mind set was the promised thirty minute delivery." Domino's also offered compensation: Rs.30/- off the price tag, if there was a delay in delivery. For the first 4 years in India, Domino's concentrated on its 'Delivery' act. For its delivery promise to work, Domino's followed a 11-minute schedule: one minute for taking down the order, one minute for Pizza-making, six minutes oven-time, and three minutes for packing, sealing and exit. Pizza Hut, on the other hand, laid more emphasis on its "restaurant dining experience." It positioned itself as a family restaurant and also concentrated on wooing kids. Its delivery service was not time-bound.

Since its entry into India, Domino's introduced nine new toppings for Pizzas to cater to the local tastes. Different flavors were introduced in different parts of India. Advani said, "The Indian palate is very definitive - people are extremely finicky and choosy, not too willing to experiment. Food tastes vary from region to region. To capture the market, we had to localize flavors." Thus, Deluxe Chicken with Mustard Sauce' and Sardines were confined to the East, Mutton Ghongura and Chicken Chettinad to the South and Chicken Pudina to Mumbai. Butter chicken, Makhani Paneer and the Chatpata Chana Masala were confined to the North. Very soon, Pizza Hut followed Domino's and offered customized Spicy Paneer and Chicken Tikka toppings. Apart from this, it also opened a 100% vegetarian restaurant at Ahmedabad, a one-of-its-kind worldwide. The restaurant also offered a special Jain menu, which did not have a single root-based ingredient to fit in with the food habits of Jains.

By March 2000, Domino's opened 37 outlets all over India. Between April 2000 and February 2001, Domino's set up 64 more outlets in India. Delhi had the maximum number of outlets - 17, followed by Mumbai with 13. Domino's had the largest retail network in the fast food segment in India- with 101 outlets across 40 cities. Domino's had a tie-up with a real estate consultant Richard Ellis to help with locations, conduct feasibility studies, and manage the construction. It was also looking at non-traditional outlets like large corporate offices, railway stations, cinema halls and university campuses. In early 2000, Domino's had opened an outlet at Infosys, Bangalore, which was very successful. It also had outlets at cinema halls - PVR in Delhi, Rex in Bangalore, and New Empire in Kolkata. By January 2001, Pizza Hut had 19 outlets across India. In a move to expand further, Pizza Hut planned to open an additional five restaurants in Mumbai and 30 restaurants across major cities in India, by 2001 end. Tricon announced that the company would invest Rs.30 million on each of the restaurants. In March 2001, Pizza Hut opened its first three-storeyed 125-seater dine-in restaurant at Juhu in Mumbai. Said a company official, "We are expanding the number of restaurants across the major cities to cater to today's youth which has taken to pizzas as a cuisine."

1.) Analyze the case from the perspective of localization strategies followed by leading Pizza brands. State your assumptions clearly for every argument you present.
2.) What role does Advertising plan in influencing the buyer behavior related to Pizza Purchases?

3.) If you were to launch an international Pizza brand in India at this time, what insights would you look out for while strategizing from the perspective of consumers' expected behavior? Clearly state your assumptions as part of your argument.

ASSIGNMENT C

Question No.  1           Marks - 10
According to research, there are four factors that influence consumer buyer behavior        
   psychological, personal, social, CRM systems        
 cultural, organizational, personal, psychological       
 cultural, social, personal, psychological        
 none of the above     

Question No.  2           Marks - 10
The psychological factors influencing consumer behavior are           
  motivation, perception, learning, beliefs and attitudes        
 culture, subculture, social class         
 reference groups, family, roles and status     
 none of the above     

Question No.  3           Marks - 10
Which of the following statements is not true?         
  Sigmund Freud assumed that people are largely unconscious about the real psychological forces shaping their behavior         
 The term motivation research refers to qualitative research designed to probe consumers` hidden, subconscious motivations    
 Abraham Maslow sought to explain why people are driven by particular needs at particular times            
Selective retention means that marketers must try to understand the mind-sets of consumers and how these will affect interpretations of advertising and sales information   

Question No.  4           Marks - 10
The consumers' five steps of adopting a new product refer to which of the following?      
   Awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, adoption      
 Awareness, promotion, evaluation, trial, adoption   
 Adoption, interest, evaluation, trial promotion         
 Awareness, interest, cash cows, trial, adoption        

Question No.  5           Marks - 10
In 'stages of adoption process' , customer decides to become regular user in           
 

           
 awareness stage

 interest stage

 evaluation stage

 adoption

Question No.  6           Marks - 10

Adopter group 'laggards' are  
 

           
 deliberate

 'guided by respect

 skeptical

 tradition bound

Question No.  7           Marks - 10

Social class group which earns through exceptional ability is best classified as        
 

           
 upper middles

 working class

 lower uppers

 upper uppers

Question No.  8           Marks - 10

Tendency to which results of innovation are communicated to others is classified as          
 

           
 relative advantage

 divisibility

 communicability

 compatibility

Question No.  9           Marks - 10

Person's own living or interacting and acting pattern is classified as            
 

           
 lifestyle

 personality and self concept

 social class

 None of above

Question No.  10         Marks - 10

Needs of customers are triggered by
 

           
 internal stimuli

 external stimuli

 both a and b

 none of above


Question No.  11         Marks - 10

Group which can exert influences on other because of specialized knowledge and skills is called  
 

           
 opinion leader

 leading adopters

 influential

 all of above

Question No.  12         Marks - 10

A need that is aroused up to sufficient level is called           
 

           
 want

 motive or drive

 Both a and b

 none of above

Question No.  13         Marks - 10

Customers keeping such information that supports their attitudes towards brand is classified as    
 

           
 selective attention

 selective distortion

 selective retention

 all of above

Question No.  14         Marks - 10

Personal factors include         
 

           
 online communities

 social class

 personality and self concept

 roles and status

Question No.  15         Marks - 10

Ads affecting consumers subconscious minds are classified as        
 

           
 online advertising

 subliminal advertising

 luminal advertising

 both b and c

Question No.  16         Marks - 10

Tendency to which experiences of potential customers fits with innovation is called          
 

           
 relative advantage

 divisibility

 communicability

 compatibility

Question No.  17         Marks - 10

Types of consumer buying behavior are        
 

           
 two types

 three types

 four types

 five types

Question No.  18         Marks - 10

Highly involved consumer buying behavior and customers perceive fewer differences among brands is called     
 

           
 complex buying behavior

 variety seeking buying behavior

 dissonance reducing buying behavior

 habitual buying behavior


Question No.  19         Marks - 10

Cultural factors must include
 

           
 beliefs and attitudes

 social class

 occupation

 roles and status

Question No.  20         Marks - 10

If product performance exceeds customer expectations, customer is           
 

           
 satisfied

 dissatisfied

 delighted

 none of above

Question No.  21         Marks - 10

That minor stimuli which determines when and how customer will respond in certain way is called          
 

           
 perception

 cues

 motives

 both a and c


Question No.  22         Marks - 10

Less involved consumer buying behavior in which customers perceive few differences between brands is called
 

           
 complex buoying behavior

 variety seeking buying behavior

 dissonance reducing buying behavior

 habitual buying behavior

Question No.  23         Marks - 10

According to brand personality traits, 'sophistication' is concluded as brand being
 

           
 reliable and intelligent

 daring and imaginative

 cheerful and wholesome

 charming and upper class

Question No.  24         Marks - 10

Social class who rely on relatives for assistance in trouble times and economic support considered as       
 

           
 upper middles

 working class

 middle class

 upper uppers

Question No.  25         Marks - 10

Well known brand 'Apple' is related to brand personality trait of     
 

           
 ruggedness

 competence

 sophistication

 excitement

Question No.  26         Marks - 10

In 'adoption process for new products' , customer seek information in the  
 

           
 awareness stage

 interest stage

 evaluation and trial stage

 all of above

Question No.  27         Marks - 10

evaluation and trial stage       
 

           
 adoption process

 cognitive dissonance

 pre purchase behavior

 post-purchase behavior

Question No.  28         Marks - 10

In social class grouping, white and blue collar workers with average pay can be classified as         
 

           
 upper middles

 working class

 middle class

 upper uppers

Question No.  29         Marks - 10

Buyer decision process starts with     
 

           
 information search

 need recognition

 evaluation of alternatives

 both 1 and 2

Question No.  30         Marks - 10

In 'stages of adoption process', stage in which customer considers whether to try product or not to is classified as            
 

           
 awareness stage

 interest stage

 evaluation and trial stage

 adoption

Question No.  31         Marks - 10

'stages in adoption process' involves  
 

           
 awareness

 interest

 evaluation and trial

 all of above


Question No.  32         Marks - 10

According to brand personality traits, 'excitement' is concluded as brand being      
 

           
 outdoorsy and tough

 daring and imaginative

 cheerful and wholesome

 charming and upper class

Question No.  33         Marks - 10

Highly involved consumer buying behavior while perceiving significant differences between brands is called      
 

           
 complex buoying behavior

 variety seeking buying behavior

 dissonance reducing buying behavior

 habitual buying behavior

Question No.  34         Marks - 10

Procedure in marketing which consists of enlisting opinion leaders as "brand ambassadors" is called         
 

           
 Leading marketing

 buzz marketing

 online marketing

 none of above

Question No.  35         Marks - 10

If customer 's expectations and products performance matches, customer is           
 

           
 satisfied

 dissatisfied

 delighted

 none of above


Question No.  36         Marks - 10

In buyer decision process, stage in which purchase intention is transformed in to purchase decision is called        
 

           
 need recognition

 information search

 purchase decision

 both b and c

Question No.  37         Marks - 10

Tendency of difficult understanding related to use of market offering is called      
 

           
 relative advantage

 complexity

 communicability

 compatibility

Question No.  38         Marks - 10

Adopter group who is suspicious of change is classified as  
 

           
 late majority

 early majority

 laggard

 early adopter

Question No.  39         Marks - 10

Remembrance of good points that are related to chosen brand as compared to competing brands is called            
 

           
 selective attention

 selective distortion

 selective retention

 both a and b

Question No.  40         Marks - 10

Low involved buying behavior of consumers while perceiving significant differences between brands is called   
 

           
 complex buying behavior

 variety seeking buying behavior

 dissonance reducing buying behavior

 habitual buying behavior



  
Management of Technology & Innovation

S. No. 1 Questions Marks - 10
1
Write short notes
a) Concurrent engineering
b) Core competency
c) Appropriate technology
2
a) Explain the term intellectual property right?
b) What is the role of WTO in protecting IPR?
3
a) What is technovation? Explain the process of tehnovation.
b) What are the principles of technology fusion?
4
a) Differentiate the terms invention and innovation.
b) Why organizations resort to technology transfer? What are the issues that encompass technology transfer?
5
a) Explain the term world class manufacturing?
b) What is JIT? Discuss the basic elements that constitute JIT.
6
a) What is technology absorption? What are the reasons for the external acquisition of technology?
b) What is technology intelligence capability?












Case Study
Managing Technology and R&D
ESAB Indian limited, Bombay is a leading manufacturer of welding consumables and equipment. ESAB India Limited is the Indian associate of ESAB AB, the Swedish multinational and the world’s largest company in welding and cutting, with production centers, core representation in most of the countries.
ESAB India, a Public Limited Company with paid up capital of Rs. 50 million, employs 206 people, including 35 S&T personnel, at its Kalwa unit which is the major manufacturing facility. It had a turnover of above Rs. 30 crores during 1991-92. It is licensed to make 1250 nos. of welding and cutting equipment and 24020 km of welding electrodes.
The in-house R&D unit of the company employs about 10 persons including S&T personnel (scientists and engineers) and is headed by a well qualified chief at the level of General Manager directly reporting to the Managing Director. The R&D unit is a separate entity situated within the company premises occupying a floor area of about 300 sq. m. but closely interacts with other functional groups. It has well equipped laboratories and pilot plant facilities for development purposes. The annual R&D expenditure was about Rs. 24 lakhs during 1991-92, i.e. about 0.8% of the annual turnover. A good technical library having books, journals and periodicals in the field of manufacturing is maintained. The company also encourages close interaction with the relevant R&D organizations and academic institutions. R&D personnel participate in technical seminars and meetings in India and abroad. A computerized information facility has also been built up.
The R&D unit of the ESAB India closely interacts from time to time with the principals in Sweden and at other places on developmental needs and receives relevant technical information which is very useful for R&D in India. In fact, there are some products/areas which have specifically been developed to meet the needs of India and could be relevant to other developing countries as well, but are not covered in the product range of the principals abroad. Most of the developments relate to highly specific applications such as for oil, power, underwater uses and are import substitutes. There are immense export possibilities through constant development efforts to meet the specific requirements of other countries.
In the early eighties ESAB realized that to survive in the competitive world of welding it had to become the biggest company and a leader in technology. As a route to achieve this objective, ESAB acquired a number of companies active in the field of welding and cutting. It acquired the European welding activities of Philips electrical and electronic group, based in the Netherlands in 1985. Subsequently, the welding business unit of Philips India Limited also became a part of ESAB Group in July 1988. This unit was not doing well commercially. The turnover of ESAB (India) almost tripled in three years due to active marketing efforts. In May, 1991 ESAB India Limited acquired the welding business of Indian Oxygen Limited (IOL), Calcutta. The turnover then approached Rs. 100 crore. The new Indian organization now has four major manufacturing centers and has sales outlets in all parts of the sub-continent.
TECHNOLOGY AND STRATEGY POLICY
ESAB’s objective was to become a world leader in welding technology. This was to be achieved by carrying in-house research and by absorbing the technology of newly acquired companies. ESAB now has well established R&D facilities in a number of countries, including India. The R&D unit of ESAB is a DSIR recognized unit and works presently mainly for the Indian market. In setting the objective of ESAB India, the top management of the parent company takes into account the in-house capability and potential for further advancement through imported technology. All possible support to R&D is extended by the management to retain the leadership in its field.
The company’s commitment to welding technology and product development is evident from the goal of the organization which is to provide technical solutions to the customers. Here the organization insists on the important distinction that is to provide solutions and does not sell products.
In a world where technology dominates there are new opportunities for continuous development. The development of low moisture absorption welding electrodes is a good example. The offshore structures of the North Sea required welding consumables (electrodes) which would produce welded fabrication free from structural failure in a very harsh working environment. The cost of such failures could be tremendous compared to the cost of welding consumables. Typically, welding consumables constitute less than 1.5% of the total cost of the structure. The cost of failure of the structures is frequently many times the cost of the structure itself.
The early objective was to have extra low hydrogen in the weld metal. For this purpose special low hydrogen electrodes were made and then re-packed just before use. This costly process could be eliminated by packing the electrodes in vacuum sealed packages (Vac Pac) at a relatively high cost. Efforts at developing the low cost devices for packing continued. The low moisture absorption electrodes have now been produced which reduce the cost of the solution of the welding problem. At the same time the product was further developed to give improved welding characteristics in order to improve manufacturability and to reduce cost.
Expenses incurred on product and process development have to be recovered from sales so that R&D process for continuous improvement can go on. The key words which characterize ESAB’s commitment to the continuous development of processes and system are:
· The productivity of the welder and fabricator
· The quality of weld deposit
· The working environment
PRODUCTIVITY
During the last decade and a half, a shift from the manual welding process to semi and fully automatic welding processes has taken place in most of the developed countries, mainly to achieve higher productivity and lower manufacturing cost. Today in these markets more than half of the total production of weld metal is derived from continuous solid and flux cored wires processes. It, therefore, became necessary to develop consumables to meet this challenge. Many new automatic consumables have been added.
There was a parallel development of new welding machines to match the automatic welding processes (including welding robots). The packing standards were also changed to suit automatic welding consumables for uninterrupted supply of high-quality wire to the robotic processes (ESAB’s Marathon Pac).
QUALITY
Products are services which do not meet the quality requirements of the customers and do not stand the test of time. Today quality does not remain within the boundaries of the product alone. Total quality is the need of the hour. Introduction of a Total Quality Program is the ESAB group is a step in this direction. While finalizing the requirement for a new product the quality of the weld is inbuilt in the specification. Welding is not an end in itself. It is a process to produce a structure. The most successful welds produce the base component or fabrication at the lowest level.
ENVIRONMENT
The cost and quality of the weld very much depend on the welder who in turn is profoundly influenced by the working environment. The welder will produce better welds in a friendly environment or with electrodes with better welding characteristics, a single point control (synergic control) of the welding machines and reduce fume. Controlling the toxicity limit of the welding fume shows concern towards the health of the welder whilst at the same time improving the effectiveness. ESAB’s R&D is in the forefront of action to make the environment friendlier to the welder.
As can be seen, developments in welding concern while process and are realized by improving existing products and introducing new technologies. Attention will, in future, focus increasingly on issues relating to the internal and external environment and economy. Combining ESAB’s product, process research and development with the customers’ production experience often lead to collaborative ventures to improve economy, quality, and productivity and safety standards in the latter works.
The R&D department of ESAB India is the focal point of all technical activities of ESAB in India. It also acts as the interface between the principals in Sweden and the Indian organization. It undertakes research and development activities related to new products and technologies for meeting the needs of the growing Indian market. Emphasis is on continuous local technological development, absorption and up-gradation of imported technologies for all the welding activities.
The department is manned by a group of highly qualified persons who have the experience in other line functions so that their perception of the problem is realistic rather than theoretical. Members have had previous experience in quality control, production or marketing before they joined the R&D group. They are capable of understanding the real problems or the requirement of new products as envisaged by the customer. All members of the department help each other to keep expectation within feasible limits.
Technology and product is market lead in India. For instance, in a specific nuclear project the requirements were very stringent and critical. The required product was developed in two phases. In the beginning, the technical requirements were first met and subsequently the cost was reduced. Initially, market demand was not large but with time it expanded and now they have a proprietary product with large demand.
Many such market-led developments have been successfully carried out in India. This has helped ESAB earn the name of a technology based company. The R&D department accordingly has established its importance in the organization and has representation in all decisions of the group management pertaining to technology and product management.
METHODOLOGY
If the product development is market-led, the marketing department has to present its requirements in regard to future market demand, possible new businesses or new applications. Once the need has been agreed the R&D department attempts to ascertain whether the product is available within the ESAB group. If it is, the principals abroad are contracted for details of formulation and production data. In the event that a group product cannot be identified, then the R&D department of the principals combines with their Indian counterparts for a program for development. After establishing the basic formulation and production data, work on adaptation to Indian condition starts. This adaptation is necessary because of variations in the raw materials and production plant.
The formulations are broken into their basic chemical constituents and on them the chemical composition of the indigenous raw materials is superimposed. Imbalances are suitably adjusted to provide the correct weld metal analysis and welding characteristics of the electrode. Theoretical knowledge and practical experience are essential for doing this. A tentative formula is obtained which is refined through experiment to give the final desired product. The new formulation is first tried on pilot plant and subsequently transferred to production. For successful development and commercialization of a product, marketing and sales, materials management and production departments are all involved. The R&D personnel remain involved till the product is established commercially. R&D must also be involved in manufacturing technology to meet the company’s own demand for improved productivity, quality or to increase manufacturing flexibility.
DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED
What has been discussed above works if the situation is ideal? Reality is often different. Some of the major difficulties encountered in actual practice relate to:
· Changes in specifications during the development period
· Failure to achieve the required result by the R&D department
· Unduly long response time of development
· Prohibitive cost of product
In the course of development, the customers’ need may change. If such a change is not very major, it may only cause a small delay but in case of major changes, it may mean development in an entirely new direction. Alternatively, the specifications may sometimes be too stringent that it may not be possible to manufacture a new product within the constraints and projected cost. It is also possible that the targets laid down in the guidelines received from the principals cannot be met because of non-availability of specific raw materials at reasonable prices. These are all major handicaps in developing the desired product.
Undue delay in developing a product may result in losing market opportunity for which it was intended. Often development may use costly materials and the finished available product may become more expensive than an alternative product in the market resulting in failure to develop a commercially viable product. All problems and difficulties described above combine into a single problem—loading the interest of the customer. These difficulties can arise in market-led development. However, if development is production-led, many new and good developments never reach the market because they do not satisfy a recognized customer need. In relation to development activity, the following observations of general nature can be made:
1.      The top management must commit itself (through the company objectives) to render active support of development of product and technology. Often in times, expenses incurred to development come under the microscope. The commitment of the top management will ensure that in the long-term, investment in R&D activities will pay off handsomely.
2.      Development is not a single department’s job. Active involvement from marketing and sales, production and materials management is essential to make the new product reach the customer at right time and at the right cost.
3.      Cost of the product plays an important role in the development efforts. This point must be kept in mind from the very beginning. A developer must be conversant with the cost structure of the product.
4.      All industrial R&D activities must have commercialization of the development as its goal. Any development will be termed a failure if it does not improve the bottom line of the organization.
5.      Many difficulties may be faced during the R&D process, so R&D is assured of a quick and easy success.
6.      Guidelines and directions from the principals abroad are only part of the story. Local R&D is important to satisfy local needs and constraints. Appropriate technology is the need for all R&D effort while adapting products and technologies from abroad.
7.      ESAB India’s role in future will be to develop the existing techniques and to participate in the research and development of new techniques with a view to maintain its leading position in the field of welding and cutting in the 21st century.
OPPORTUNITIES OF ESAB INDIA
In the international scenario the technological developments are taking place at a very rapid pace. India with its wealth of technical expertise should adopt overseas technological advances for speedy commercial implementation and benefit from them. Such adaptation will hasten the process of industrialization. Indian R&D efforts should be directed initially towards meeting the local needs and overcoming local constraints by suitable adaptation. But finally we must aim to be a world competitive supplier of welding and cutting solutions.

1. What strategic route ESAB AB followed to become technology leader in the world? What could be the reasons behind such a route?
2. What efforts were made by ESAB AB and ESAB India in the field of product development?
3. How is the R&D function at ESAB India organized? Critically examine.







Question No: 1
Which of the following is NOT very important in managing technology
Production process
Product & process design
Information systems
Compensation packages
Question No: 2
Technology management is concerned with all EXCEPT
Incremental innovation in existing technologies
Development of new technology
Combining older technologies
Procurement of machines similar to the one existing
Question No: 3
All of the following are determinants of productivity except
Effective control over cost and quality
Rationalization of work flow
Training hours spent on staff
Optimal scheduling of work and material handling
Question No: 4
A term used to indicate a good match between the technology utilized and the resources required for its optimal use
New technology
Emerging technology
Appropriate technology
Codified technology
Question No: 5
Reverse engineering is also known as
Experience and design looping
Design to cost
Reengineering
Zero defect production
Question No: 6
An R& D centre is to be set up when
Technology is a competing strategy
The company uses reverse engineering
Subsidy exists for setting up R&D units
A Ph. D qualified person is to be promoted as a unit head
Question No: 7
A necessary condition for technological fusion is
Technological diversification
Technological determinism
Technology codification
Technology integration
Question No: 8
All of the following are part of business alliances in use in Japan EXCEPT
Exchange of expertise by companies in different fields
Merger and acquisition of companies
Alliance among large, medium and small companies
International alliances among industries in developed countries
Question No: 9
Core competence of Sony is
Capacity to miniaturize
Optical media expertise
Heavy R&D expenditure
JIT production
Question No: 10
All are reasons for external acquisition of technology EXCEPT
Firm lets other firms to take big risk before participation
Technology already developed saves time and cost
Technology already developed saves time and cost
Doesn’t require recruitment of skilled labor
Question No: 11
Which is NOT an issue in acquisition and absorption of technology from external sources
Difficult to assess the relative merits of technologies which are complex
Adapting and modifying technologies to local conditions
Negotiating technology license
Arranging payment for the technology
Question No: 12
Which of the following is not a characteristic of CIM
Compatible hardware and software
Paperless office and integrated business system
Flexibility of operations and low cost of implementation
Use of CNC machines
Question No: 13
Gaurav’s role in his organization is to scan the market and bring new technologies to the organization. His role can be identified as
Project manager
Sponsor
Technological gatekeeper
Entrepreneur
Question No: 14
The development of new hybrid technologies by combining the capabilities of existing technologies is called
Technovation
Technology fusion
Technology intelligence
Technology push
Question No: 15
Which of the following is NOT a conducive atmosphere for innovation
An open decentralized organizational structure
Ensure that new ideas are not easily killed
Minimize administrative interference
Tight deadlines
Question No: 16
Two basic objectives of a national policy relate to the promotion of productivity, innovation and competition on one hand and the facilitation of the firm’s _________ on the other
Competitive capabilities
Financial strength
Autonomy
Labor unions
Question No: 17
Which of the following is NOT a part of Techno ware
Powered equipment
Automated machines
Computerized machines
Operating ability
Question No: 18
Info ware consists of all the following EXCEPT
Describing facts
Familiarizing facts
Repairing abilities
Utilizing facts
Question No: 19
Following are reasons for making inventions EXCEPT
Personal satisfaction
Solving problems faced in everyday life
Being recognized by others
Zeal for charity
Question No: 20
Neighboring rights does not include
The rights of performing artists in their performance
The rights of producers of Phonograms in their phonograms
The rights of broadcasting organization in their radio television broadcast
The rights of authors in their books
Question No: 21
The six step ASSETS process does not contain
Asses current situation
Specify technology strategy
Codify technology
Select technology portfolio
Question No: 22
When a producer has authorization from an IPR holder to produce goods but exceeds the quantity, the excess goods are
Illegitimate goods
Overrun goods
Grey market goods
Black goods
Question No: 23
The term used to protect the rights of an unpublished book
Copyright
Trademark
Service mark
Publishing rights
Question No: 24
Area not covered by TRIPS agreement
Trademarks and service marks
Industrial designs
Geographical indications
Layout design of manufacturing plans
Question No: 25
Which of the following depict the central role of a corporate R&D
Development of relevant breakthrough technology
Continuous process and product improvement
Day to day problem solving
Engage in basic research
Question No: 26
Productivity techniques used to reduce costs of one or more of production inputs by replacing with the cheaper available substitutes is known as
Group technology
TQM
Factor substitution
Six Sigma
Question No: 27
All of the following are characteristics of high technology EXCEPT
A fast rate of growth
High ratio of R&D expenditure to sales
Very limited market
Less educated employees
Question No: 28
Technology that proprietary to a firm is known as
Basic technology
Generic technology
Key technology
Appropriate technology
Question No: 29
All the following are technological intelligence capability EXCEPT
Ability to monitor worldwide technological trends
Ability to source technology
Ability to get skilled labor
Ability to mange acquired technology
Question No: 30
A technology for which research has progressed far enough to indicate its success is known as
High technology
Emerging technology
Appropriate technology
Codified technology
Question No: 31
All of the following are basic constituents of JIT EXCEPT
Simplification of product design
Improvement of plant layout design based on flow
Immediate payment to suppliers
Making vendors partner to the production process
Question No: 32
Japanese companies focus on ___________ rather than result
People
Processes
Quality
Plans
Question No: 33
The process of ___________ threatens the developing world by appropriating the collective knowledge of the society into proprietary knowledge for the commercial profit of a few
Liberalization
Globalization
Privatization
Commercialization
Question No: 34
Traditionally intellectual property is divided into two groups. If one is Copyrights, which is the other
Agricultural Property rights
Real estate rights
Industrial Property rights
Self expression rights
Question No: 35
WIPO convention covers all of the following under IPR except
Performances of performing artists, phonograms and broadcasts
Scientific discoveries
Trademarks, service marks, and commercial names and designations
Agricultural patent rights
Question No: 36
A form of networking of institutions and activities for inducting high technologies
Technology Park
Technology associations
Technology groups
Technology centers
Question No: 37
The act of producing or selling a product containing an intentional and calculated reproduction of a genuine trademark is called
Counterfeiting
Cyber squatting
Infringement
Copyrights violation
Question No: 38
Which is not a planned channel for technology transfer
Reverse engineering
Joint venture
Franchise
Foreign Direct Investment
Question No: 39
MFM treatment under TRIPS means
Mild and fast foreign negotiations with MNC’s
Treating everyone equally
Special treatment to some nations
Increasing reciprocity
Question No: 40
Darjeeling tea has protected its intellectual property rights based on
Trademark
Service mark
Geographical indications
Patents


 Production and operations management

Questions Marks - 10

1
a) Operations scheduling is one of the most important function of production planning and control. Discuss.
b) Seven jobs are to be carried out on three machines M1, M2, M3 in the order of M1, M2, M3. The processing time in hours of various jobs are tabulated below.
Job
M1
M2
M3
A
1
7
8
B
3
3
1
C
7
8
8
D
9
2
11
E
4
8
9
F
5
6
14
G
2
1
12
i) What are the conditions for using Johnson’s rule to sequence jobs on three machines?
ii) What is the make span for these jobs?
iii) What is the idling time?

2
a) Operations scheduling is one of the most important function of production planning and control. Discuss.
b) Seven jobs are to be carried out on three machines M1, M2, M3 in the order of M1, M2, M3. The processing time in hours of various jobs are tabulated below.
Job
M1
M2
M3
A
1
7
8
B
3
3
1
C
7
8
8
D
9
2
11
E
4
8
9
F
5
6
14
G
2
1
12
i) What are the conditions for using Johnson’s rule to sequence jobs on three machines?
ii) What is the make span for these jobs?
iii) What is the idling time?


3
a) What is economic order quantity? What are the assumptions of EOQ?
b) If the annual demand for a product is 3,50,000 units. The annual carrying cost rate is 25 percent of the cost of the unit, the product costs Rs 14.75 per unit to purchase, and each time the product is ordered the related ordering cost is Rs 53.00.
i) What is EOQ?
ii) What is total cost at EOQ?
iii) How much would be the total cost if the order quantity is 2500 units due to standard packing?


4
a) Explain JIT manufacturing
b) Explain acceptance sampling
c) What do you understand by maintenance policy? Explain various categories of spares.


5
a) What is meant by master production schedule?
b) Explain the activities involved in production planning and control.
c) Discuss MRP. What are the inputs and outputs of an MRP system.


6
a) What is capacity planning? Explain the various methods of altering capacity
b) What are the factors affecting facility location? What are the techniques for facility location?
c) What are the various facility layouts? Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages.


7
a) Explain the concept of product design and development.
b) What are the various production systems?

8
a) Define production operations management. What are its objectives and functions?
b) What are the operations management strategies?

Section 2

Please read the case study given below and answer questions given at the end :
Systems Software (P) Ltd. is planning to develop new software. It has identified the activities in the table below for this software development project and has calculated three time estimates in days for each of the activity.
Activity
Description
Predecessors
Optimistic time
Most likely time
Pessimistic time
A
Create objectives
-
1
2
3
B
Choose Operating system
A
3
5
7
C
Generate algorithm
A
6
10
14
D
Choose a suitable programming
A
4
6
8
E
Write the programme
B, C, D
8
9
10
F
Test the software
E
2
4
6
G
Get approval for commercialization
F
1
3
5


1. Draw the network diagram; find out the critical path and the expected duration of the project.
2. Calculate the slack time for each of the activities.
3. Calculate the probability of completing the project in 30 days.

Assignment C

Question No: 1
Organizations that produce something other than physical products are called -
Transformation organizations
Data transfer groups
Service organizations
Cultural organizations
Question No: 2
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of service operations -
Intangible output
Perishable products
Labour intensive
Low customer contact
Question No: 3
Decisions that tend to focus on the entire organization, cutting across departmental lines, and have long term consequences are called -
DEPARTMENTAL
Tactical
Strategic
Routine
Question No: 4
Competing on differentiation is -
Concerned with uniqueness
Based on cost leadership
Based on flexibility
Reliability of scheduling
Question No: 5
Which of the following is NOT important in globalization -
Product Design
Culture & ethics
Facility location
Facility layout
Question No: 6
Which of the following conditions are NOT generally associated with a job process :-
Work force with highly specialized skills
Low product volume
Relatively high customization
High resource flexibility
Question No: 7
Low volume, high variety production is best suited for -
Process focus
Repetitive focus
Product focus
Mass customization
Question No: 8
Which of the following automatically place parts into a warehouse -
ASRS
AGV
FMS
SGV
Question No: 9
The planning and scheduling of production only against specific production order is -
Make-to-Stock
Make-to-Order
Assemble-to-Order
Mass Customization
Question No: 10
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic during the introductory phase of the product life cycle :-
Research
Process modification
Supplier development
Capacity utilization
Question No: 11
Which of the following is a characteristic of the maturity phase :-
Products are “fine tuned”
Product designs begin to stabilize
Competitors are well-established
Products are considered for termination
Question No: 12
Benefits of design for manufacturability and value engineering include all of the following except -
Reduced complexity of the product
Additional standardization of the components
Improved job design and safety
Compromise quality
Question No: 13
Modular design -
Offers flexibility to both production and marketing
Means that small variations in production do not adversely affect the product
Uses computers to interactively design the products
Are environmentally friendly
Question No: 14
Which of the following is NOT a concept of green manufacturing :-
Make products recyclable
Standardization of components
Use less harmful ingredients
Use lighter components
Question No: 15
Design effectiveness is NOT measured by -
Percentage of standard parts & processes
Number of revisions in the design
Cost of field repairs
Time taken from concept to market
Question No: 16
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of concurrent engineering :-
Enables early supplier involvement
Promotes consensus decision making
Reduces developmental lead-time
Eliminates design changes after product introduction
Question No: 17
Which of the following is NOT a method for evaluating location alternatives :-
The transportation model
Factor rating
Center of gravity method
Waiting line analysis
Question No: 18
Which of the following is NOT a mathematical technique used for finding the best location for a single distribution point that services several stores or areas :-
Factor rating
Center of gravity
Transportation model
Hungarian method
Question No: 19
The system that has the highest equipment flexibility is -
Job shop
Batch
Repetitive production
Continuous processing
Question No: 20
In a product layout the process of deciding how to assign tasks to work stations is referred to as:-
Process balancing
Task allocation
Line balancing
Factor rating
Question No: 21
The advantages NOT associated with a U shaped assembly line over a straight one are -
Fewer workers are needed
Workers can reach more of the work area
Work area can be efficiently balanced
Automated material handling
Question No: 22
All of the following statements about using the transportation model to develop an acceptable aggregate plan are true EXCEPT :-
The least expensive alternatives often are those in which the output is produced and sold in the same period
It is possible to disallow backorders by making the back-order cost an impossibly high number
The transportation model is less useful for chase strategies
A period’s overtime capacity is generally a percentage of its regular time capacity
Question No: 23
Which of the following statements about a linear programming model is NOT true :-
An optimal production plan is desired
The values of decision variables are fractional
A set of linear constraints might be defined
Cross-product relationships exist between two or more decision variables
Question No: 24
The limitations that restrict the permissible choices for decision variables are called -
Parameters
Objective function
Decision variables
Constraints
Question No: 25
The total cost for a continuous review system with uncertain demand excludes consideration of -
Cycle inventory holding cost
Product cost
Ordering cost
Safety stock holding cost
Question No: 26
Select the characteristic that is not indicative of a job shop environment -
Low to medium volume production
Job or batch processes
Consistent, sequential process flow
Continual introduction of new jobs to be processed
Question No: 27
The priority –sequencing rule for job shop scheduling that relies least on time based data is -
Critical ratio
Earliest due date
First come, first served
Shortest processing time
Question No: 28
Which statement about capacity requirements planning (CRP) is not true -
CRP systems adjust the order release time to prevent a workstation fro exceeding its capacity
CRP systems access inventory records to determine when planned orders or scheduled receipts will reach a workstation
CRP systems enable the identification of critical workstations
The purpose if CRP is to match the material requirements plan with the plant’s production capacity
Question No: 29
Materials handling includes all of the following activities except -
Moving an assembly
Drilling a hole
Storing a product
Handling materials
Question No: 30
The work measurement method that is not usually used for setting standards for repetitive, well defined jobs is -
The elemental standard data approach
The work sampling method
The time study method
The predetermined data approach
Question No: 31
Attribute inspection measures -
The range of a characteristic
If product responsiveness is adequate
If cause and effect are present
If the product is good or bad
Question No: 32
One hundred percent inspection -
Will always catch all of the defective parts
Means that only good parts will be shipped to the customer
Is always practical and generally a good idea
Means that every part is checked to see whether or not it is defective
Question No: 33
Process capability -
Means that the natural variation of the process must be small enough to produce products that meet the standards
Exists when Cpk is less than 1
Exists when the process is perfectly centered
Cannot be measured
Question No: 34
The R-chart -
Is used to measure changes in the central tendency
Is always in control if the X-bar chart is in control
Generally uses control limits set at plus or minus 2 standard deviations of the distribution, rather than plus or minus 3 which is commonly used on the X-bar chart
Is used to indicate gains or losses in uniformity
Question No: 35
A customer service hotline has received an average of 7 complaints a day for the last 25 days. What type of control chart should be used to monitor this hotline -
C-chart
P-chart
X-bar chart
np-chart
Question No: 36
The maximum output of a system in a given period is called the -
Break-even point
Design capacity
Effective capacity
Efficiency
Question No: 37
Methods analysis focuses on -
The design of the machines used to perform a task
How a task is accomplished
The raw materials that are consumed in performing a task
Reducing the number of steps required to perform a task
Question No: 38
Which of the following does not relate to work scheduling :-
Flextime
Flexible workweek
Part-time system
Ergonomics
Question No: 39
A good maintenance facility should have all the following except
Well trained personnel
Ability to identify the cause of breakdowns
Ability to extend MTBF
Ability to increase MTTR
Question No: 40
The process that is intended to find potential failures and make changes or repairs is known as
Breakdown maintenance
Failure maintenance
Preventive Maintenance
Reactive Maintenance



 Supply Chain Management

S. No. Questions Marks - 10 1
a) Describe the functions of packaging in LSCM perspective.
b) What are the objectives and principles of material handling?
2
a) Describe the role of transportation in the success of logistics and supply chain.
b) What are the issues that should be considered by a logistics manager in selecting a mode of transport?
3
a) Discuss the nature and scope of storage, warehouse and distribution centres.
b) Discuss the various functions of a warehouse from the logistics and supply chain perspective.
4
a) What is inventory? Discuss various elements of inventory costs.
b) Define the concept and objectives of MRP and DRP.
5
a) Discuss the role of information in overall performance of logistics and supply chain management.
b) What are various components of Logistics Information System architecture? How does LIS facilitate improvement in logistics decision making?
6
a) What is meant by customer service? What are its features?
b) What are different elements of customer service costs? Explain its fundamental trade-offs.
7
a) What is supply chain management? What are the various flows in a supply chain?
b) What are the functions and contributions of supply chain management?
8
a) Define Logistics. Discuss and elaborate various components of logistics management.
b) Describe the concept of total cost analysis to logistics.







Case Study
Maruti Udyog-Indian Ethos & Japanese ways
Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL), the leading manufacturer of cars in India is a leader in supplier relationship management. Its turnover was Rs 12,481.00 crores and its profit before tax \was 1750 crore in 2005-06. It sold 5, 61,822 vehicles in 2005-06 and captured a market share of over 55 percent. It deals with about 7100 components for its eleven major models. Seventy percent of its suppliers by numbers are located within 100 km radius of its Gurgaon plant. They meet more than 80 percent of Maruti’s requirement by value.
Maruti has 220 approved vendors who supply the major components. The top 80 vendors supply 86 percent by value of their purchases. The rest of the vendors supplies only 14 percent. It has also signed joint ventures with a large number of its vendors. Of the 86 percent components supplied by vendors, joint ventures supply only 34 percent; the rest of the 52 percent by value is supplied by other vendors. These 80 vendors are considered strategic partners. Only 20 to 30 of them are Maruti joint ventures.
With strategic partners, Maruti has a number of programmes. Their emphasis is on vendor productivity and quality. Maruti take a major role in improving vendor productivity. It organizes Junkai VA or cost workshops with its vendors on an ongoing basis. Junkai is a Japanese word which basically means “visiting”. It has 3 components called three G- Genmab, Gembutsu, and Genjitsu.
Gemba means taking a look to see what is happening at the site. Gembutsu means examining the affected piece to understand what exactly the defect is. Genjitsu means discussing under what conditions this has happened – something like a brainstorming session. Typically, a team from Marut, along with the supplier team visits the supplier’s shop floor, has look around, noting down points. They then have a brainstorming session at the Maruti office. At the end of the brainstorming, they come out with various points relating to improvements in productivity, quality and cost.
Maruti also has constituted a group called Maruti Centre for Excellence. This is a team which continuously goes to suppliers to upgrade them. It audits the workings of its suppliers and comes out with a spider chart. The spider chart has 22 points. Each vendor is evaluated in these 22 points. Additional business is promised on the next new model to vendors who score over 60 percent on the spider chart. Every vendor really tries to make sure that he goes above this mark.
Apart from this, it has also started second tier improvement in a very big way. This was the latest initiative it took up a year ago. The result has been that the second tier vendor’s quality has also gone up. It has also started ‘green initiatives’. Accordingly, all packing has been converted into reusable packing. It recently introduced a practice to check the pollution levels of all the trucks getting into Maruti; if pollution levels were not right, then the trucks were sent back. This made its vendors understand that Maruti cared about the environment.
Further, it follows the Kaizen theme, which means to make it smaller, fewer, lighter, shorter, and beautiful. It follows this theme in its plant and has been continuously teaching this practice to its vendors. It conserves the usage of material and yield improvement. Moreover, along with CII and USAID, it has started a programme to help its suppliers get ISO 14000 certification. It has also started a programme on ELV compliance. Though this is not required in India, the idea is that by the time the requirement comes to India, Maruti’s vendors will all be sufficiently equipped to take care of it. It also has a vendor finance cost reduction programme. It has lined up with banks to see that the loans of its suppliers are transferred to lower interest rates. Through these initiatives Maruti has become more agile and leaner.
In 2005-06, Maruti trained around 16 vendors and ultimately the savings of man hours per day came to 1580 man hours, which has resulted in a saving of over one crore rupees per annum. It was able to reduce component costs by 29 percent on the Alto alone from 2001 to 2005.


1.      What is supplier relationship management?
2.      What was Maruti’s objective on supplier relationship?Discuss the kind of relationship Maruti adopted with its vendors.
3.      What are the methods adopted by Maruti to achieve supplier relationship?





Assignment C

Question No: 1
Logistics stand for


Whatever is logical and reasonable

Movement of materials to destinations
Putting together conclusions logically
Moving, supplying and warehousing materials and information in an enterprise


Question No: 2
Freight charges depends on all of the following except


Nature of the product

Value of the product
Distance to be covered
Volume/quantity to be shipped


Question No: 3
Which of the following is not associated with JIT system


Waste elimination

Mass production
Single piece flow
Pull system


Question No: 4
Which of the following is not an advantage of containerization


Reduces damages

Increases investment on handling
Reduces packaging
Reduces loss


Question No: 5
Carrier performance measures does not include


Speed

Claim settlement ratio
Area of ware house owned
Frequency


Question No: 6
Which of the following is not a carrier selection determinant


Transportation cost

Transit time
Reliability
Vehicle cost


Question No: 7
All are functions of order processing except


Order planning

Order handling
Order delivery
Order pending


Question No: 8
Which of the following is not an inventory related cost


Receivables

Ordering cost
Carrying cost
Stock-out cost


Question No: 9
Inventory analysis based on the annual consumption value is called


ABC analysis

VED analysis
FSN analysis
XYZ analysis


Question No: 10
All are principles of material handling except


First principle

Mechanization principle
Flexibility principle
Energy principle


Question No: 11
Which of the following is not true for Air Way Bill


Receipt of goods

Contract for affreightment
Negotiable document
Issued by carrier


Question No: 12
All are inputs to MRP system except


Bill of materials

Inventory status file
Master production schedule
ABC analysis file


Question No: 13
Which of the following does not provide a way to create competitive advantage


Low cost

Low flexibility
Superior customer service
Value added services


Question No: 14
All of the following are post transactional customer service elements except


Installation, warranty, repairs, etc

Customer claims, complaints and returns
Stock out level
Temporary replacement of products


Question No: 15
All of the following are primary activities in a value chain except


In bound logistics

Operations
Technology development
Service


Question No: 16
Which of the following is not a desired flow in a supply chain


Forward flow of value

Flow of goods in both the directions
Backward flow of cash
Flow of information in both the directions


Question No: 17
The internal web of an organization that allows only the internal users to access and share data is called


Intranet

EDI
Extranet
Internet


Question No: 18
Physical distribution in terms of logistics is known as


Inbound logistics

Outbound logistics
In plant logistics
Reverse logistics


Question No: 19
Supply chain conflicts can be reduced by all of the following except


Use of power by the dominant partner

Involvement by investment
Information sharing
Transfer of technology and skills


Question No: 20
Which of the following is not a characteristic of logistics


It ensures a smooth flow of all types of goods

It has the ability to meet customer expectations and requirements
It offers the best possible customer service at any cost
It deals with movement and storage of goods in appropriate quantities


Question No: 21
All of the following are the objectives of logistics except


To make available the right quantity of material at right quality at right time, at the right place in right condition at right price

To offer best possible customer service for competitive advantage
To promote the product through the logistic channels
To minimize total logistics costs


Question No: 22
The logistics costs in India is ___ percentage of GDP


20%

13%
18%
7%


Question No: 23
Which of the following is not a feature of customer service


It is reactive process

Ensures a trade-off between cost and service
Creates a competitive advantage
Brings about harmonious relationship with supply chain members


Question No: 24
Which of the following is not a feature of supply chain


Supply chain is a network of entities

The more the number of stages in a supply chain the more will be its complexity
Supply chain efficiency and effectiveness are the same
Supply chain profit should be shared equitably by all the chain members


Question No: 25
Transportation management is


A small and significant part of SCM

Too specialized and should be managed separately
Does not affect customer service
Forms a major component of costs and should be synchronized to enhance customer satisfaction


Question No: 26
Which of the following is not a key output of the logistics system


Creating Competitive advantage

Time & Place utility
Creating Proprietary asset
Increased cash flow


Question No: 27
Supply Chain Management covers


Management of suppliers and vendors

Management of inventories, warehousing, transportation and documentation relating to all suppliers
Management of demand and supplies at minimum cost but greater customer satisfaction
Warehousing management


Question No: 28
All are economic function of warehouse except


Stock piling

Receiving
Breaking bulk
Consolidation


Question No: 29
The charges levied by a municipal corporation


Sales tax

VAT
Octroi
Excise


Question No: 30
Intermodal transportation system arising out of the coordination between roadways and railways is known as


Piggyback

Fishy back
Tran-ship
Express cargo


Question No: 31
Which of the following is not an assumption of basic EOQ model


Annual demand, carrying cost and ordering cost can be estimated and is constant

Half of order quantity is considered as safety stock
Stock out has no effect
Quantity discounts does not exist


Question No: 32
A fourth party logistics provider is


An organization that provides transportation

An organization that provides warehousing facility
An organization that manages inventory and information
An organization that provides comprehensive supply chain solution


Question No: 33
Which of the following does not fit into the features of customer service


Providing customer service at any cost

Strategic processes that provides value added services
Creates competitive advantage in the market place
It reflects corporate vision


Question No: 34
Mode of economic surface transportation for bulk solid material over a long distance is


Rail

Road
Rope ways
Conveyors


Question No: 35
Penalty charged by a carrier for not clearing a consignment from their warehouse during the allowable time limit is known as


Damage

Demurrage
Liquidated damages
Penal charges


Question No: 36
Certificate of origin is issued by


Bank in the exporting country

Manufacturer
Chamber of commerce
The carrier


Question No: 37
All are features of Distribution Resources Planning except


DRP Deals with finished goods inventory

DRP operates in an independent demand situation
DRP is an explosion process
Inputs to DRP is the distribution networks


Question No: 38
A bonded warehouse is:


An open stockyard with high walls and other security measures for extra protection of goods stored

A warehouse in the premises of airport where goods imported by air are kept
A warehouse where goods on which customs or excise duties have not been paid are kept
A government warehouse used for storing confiscated goods


Question No: 39
LCL stands for


Less than normal Cargo Load

Less than Container Load
Low Cargo Load
Less Costlier Load


Question No: 40
All are related to bullwhip effect except


It is the amplification of demand variation as one moves upstream in the supply chain

Forecast errors and lead-time variability add to bullwhip effect
The phenomena was first noted by Wal-Mart
The effect can be reduced by information sharing, vendor managed inventory, etc.



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Project Management



Section - A
S. No. Questions        Marks - 10
1 .        Discuss the need of project management .    
2 .        Explain time management .    
3 .        Differentiate bteween PERT and CPM.        
4 .        Discuss the scope of projects.            
5 .        Explain project organisation.
6 .        Discuss different types of start and finish times.      
7 .        Discuss critical path.  
8 .        Explain project planning and control.

Section - B
Case Detail :

Project management, then, is the application of knowledge, skills and techniques to execute projects effectively and efficiently. It’s a strategic competency for organizations, enabling them to tie project results to business goals — and thus, better compete in their markets.Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables),undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations),which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies.
The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. The secondary —and more ambitious— challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives.But project management brings a unique focus shaped by the goals, resources and schedule of each project. The value of that focus is proved by the rapid, worldwide growth of project management


1.         Explain project management.

2.         Discuss the scope of project management.

3.         What are project constraints?


SECTION - C
Question No.  1           Marks - 10
Which of the following is not one of the steps in facilitating group decision making?        

Options          
Identifying the problem         
Analyzing the situation          
generating alternatives           
reaching decision

Question No.  2           Marks - 10
Two of the biggest challenges involved in managing a virtual project team are:      

Options          
The language barriers and time management
time management and developing trust         
The language barriers and developing effective patterns of communication            
Developing trust and effective patterns of communication

Question No.  3           Marks - 10
Which of the following is not one of the most significant sources of conflict during the project definition phase?            

Options          
priorities         
schedule         
workforce       
costs

Question No.  4           Marks - 10
Which of the following is not one of the most significant sources of conflict during the project planning phase?  

Options          
priorities         
schedule         
workforce       
costs

Question No.  5           Marks - 10
Which of the following is not one of the tips for alleviating communication problems of virtual teams?    

Options          
incluse face to face time if possible   
keep team members informed            
share pain       
establish clear norms

Question No.  6           Marks - 10
Which of the following represents an activity on an AON project network?           

Options          
arrow  
line     
node   
all

Question No.  7           Marks - 10
Arrows on an AON project network represent:         

Options          
activity           
project flow    
dependency    
Both b and c are correct

Question No.  8           Marks - 10
Which of the following is provided by a project network but not by the work breakdown structure?        

Options          
dependencies
sequencing     
interrelationships        
all

Question No.  9           Marks - 10
Part of a project is to Develop Product Specifications. This is best classified as a(n)           

Options          
event  
path    
activity           
milestone

Question No.  10         Marks - 10
The critical path in a project network is the   

Options          
shortest path   
longest path    
path with most resources       
all

Question No.  11         Marks - 10
An item on a project network is Design Software Completed. This is best described as a(n)          

Options          
event  
path    
activity           
milestone

Question No.  12         Marks - 10
A sequence of connected, dependent activities is termed a(n)         

Options          
critical path    
parallel path    
activity chain  
path

Question No.  13         Marks - 10
Which of the following is not one of the basic rules to follow when developing project networks?           

Options          
An activity cannot egin until all preceding activities have been completedq            
Each activity must have a unique identification number       
Conditional statements are allowed but looping statements are not allowed            
An activity identification number must be larger that that of any preceding activities

Question No.  14         Marks - 10
________ activities must be completed immediately before a particular activity.    

Options          
merge
burst   
predecessor    
successor

Question No.  15         Marks - 10
The forward pass in project network calculations determines the     

Options          
ES      
LS      
EF      
both a and c

Question No.  16         Marks - 10
The forward pass in project network calculations determines the     

Options          
ES      
LS      
EF      
critical path

Question No.  17         Marks - 10
Elizabeth is considering how to structure a project team that will not directly disrupt ongoing operations. The project needs to be done quickly and a high level of motivation will be needed in order to do that. For this situation, the ______ organization would be the best choice.         

Options          
Functional      
Balanced matrix         
Weak matrix   
project

Question No.  18         Marks - 10
A project management system provides a framework for launching and implementing project activities within a ______ organization.

Options          
matrix
Balanced        
weak   
parent

Question No.  19         Marks - 10

In which of the following is the balance of authority strongly in favor of the functional managers?          

Options          
Weak matrix   
balanced matrix          
strong matrix  
matrix

Question No.  20         Marks - 10
Matrix management violates the management principle of   

Options          
Span of control          
Unity of command     
Parity principle           
all of these


Question No.  21         Marks - 10
The project structure that is ranked as least effective is _______ organization.       

Options          
Functional      
Weak matrix   
balanced matrix          
strong matrix

Question No.  22         Marks - 10
Who is responsible for determining how tasks will be done in a matrix project management structure?     

Options          
The functional manager         
The project manager   
both    
none

Question No.  23         Marks - 10
The process of forecasting or approximating the time and cost of completing project deliverables is called           

Options          
budgeting       
predicting       
estimating       
planning

Question No.  24         Marks - 10
Top-down estimates are most likely to occur during the ______ phase.       

Options          
concept           
planning         
execution        
all

Question No.  25         Marks - 10
Learning curves are more likely to apply in situations where most of the costs are  

Options          
material          
labor   
overhead        
all

Question No.  26         Marks - 10
The approach that begins with a top-down estimate for the project and then refines estimates as the project is implemented is known as ______ method.   

Options          
Function point            
template         
learning curve
phase estimating

Question No.  27         Marks - 10
The accuracy of top-down estimates will typically be in the range of          

Options          
Minus 50% to plus 50%         
Minus 0% to plus 75%           
Minus 20% to plus 60%         
Minus 35% to plus 35%         


Question No.  28         Marks - 10
The cost to prepare bottom-up estimates will typically run how much more than the costs to prepare the top-down estimates?       

Options          
About the same          
About twice as much
About three times as much    
About four times as much      


Question No.  29         Marks - 10
Project costs are typically viewed from all of the following except:

Options          
scheduled       
sunk    
actual  
committed

Question No.  30         Marks - 10
Which of the following is not one of the recommended guidelines for developing useful work package estimates?            

Options          
Estimates should be made by those responsible for the work           
Use several people to estimate the same work           
Estimates should be based on normal conditions      
Estimates should include a normal level of contingency

Question No.  31         Marks - 10
Reasons why estimating time and cost are important include all of the following except:   

Options          
To schedule work       
To determine how long the project should take and cost      
To develop cash flow needs  
all

Question No.  32         Marks - 10
The bottom-up approach for estimating times and costs that uses costs from past projects that were similar to the current project is known as:   

Options          
Detailed WBS work package estimates         
template method        
function point method           
phase estimating

Question No.  33         Marks - 10
Detailed WBS work package estimates         

Options          
apportion        
function point method           
phase estimating         
learnin curve

Question No.  34         Marks - 10
People working on prototype development needing time to interact with the design engineers after the design is completed is an example of:  

Options          
Hidden interaction costs        
Things going wrong on a project       
Normal conditions not applying        
changes in project scope

Question No.  35         Marks - 10
Design flaws being revealed after the fact, extreme weather conditions, and accidents occurring are examples of:            

Options          
Hidden interaction costs        
Things going wrong on a project       
Normal conditions not applying        
changes in project scope

Question No.  36         Marks - 10
Delaying noncritical activities to lower peak demand on resources is known as resource    

Options          
shifting           
effectiveness  
MANIPULATING    
smoothing

Question No.  37         Marks - 10
If resources are not adequate to meet peak demands, the resulting reschedule is termed    

Options          
Resource-constrained scheduling      
time constrained scheduling  
Mandatory leveling    
project resource adjustment

Question No.  38         Marks - 10
When developing a new software package, the software must be designed, the code must be written, and the code must be tested. This is an example of a ______ constraint.   

Options          
physical          
technical         
time    
schedule

Question No.  39         Marks - 10
Sam the project engineer has been scheduled to run the product system test at the same time he is to build a marketing prototype. This is an example of a ______ constraint.     

Options          
physical          
technical         
time    
resource

Question No.  40         Marks - 10
Susan is to conduct environmental testing but the chamber cannot hold all the equipment that she wants to test. This is an example of a _________ constraint.      

Options          
physical          
technical         
time    
schedule




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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Section - A
S. No. Questions        Marks – 10
1 .        Explain service quality.        
2 .        Mention the various measurements of dispersion.            
3 .        Explain the contribution of Juran to the quality movement.       
4 .        Discuss about the implementation steps of TQM and mention the importance of the management commitment.
5 .        Explain about the new seven tools of quality and its applications in detail.        
6 .        Discuss about the need, types, construction and applications of control charts.            
7 .        Discuss about the objectives, process, outcome and benefits of Quality Function Deployment (QFD).            
8 .        Discuss about the documentation process in ISO 9000:2000 system.      


Section – B
A spindle with specifications 20 ± 0.05 mm was machined in a lathe. The standard deviation of the spindle machined was found to be 0.25 mm.

Please give your answer in at least 25 words and press save and continue button.
1. Compute the capability index.
2. State whether the machining process in the lathe is capable of meeting the specifications.
3.  If the specifications are 10 ± 2 mm for a particular quality characteristic and the average repair coot is Rs. 200/-, determine the loss function. Determine the loss at y=11.


SECTION – C

Question No.  1           Marks - 10
Malcolm Baldrige national quality award is for (MBNQA)  

Options          
Total Quality Management    
International Standard Organization
Total Productive Maintenance           
Total Quality Control

Question No.  2           Marks - 10
The process mapping is a ______ diagram.   

Options          
Data flow       
Work flow      
Circular          
Audit

Question No.  3           Marks - 10
Control chart is a        

Options          
Process monitoring tool         
Process control tool    
Both (a) and (b)         
None of the above

Question No.  4           Marks - 10
The objective of ISO-9000 family of Quality management is           

Options          
Customer satisfaction            
Employee satisfaction            
Skill enhancement      
Environmental issues


Question No.  5           Marks - 10
Total Quality Management (TQM) focuses on          

Options          
Employee       
Customer        
Both (a) and (b)         
None of the above

Question No.  6           Marks - 10
Which of the following is responsible for quality objective?            

Options          
Top level management           
Middle level management      
Frontline management           
All of the above

Question No.  7           Marks - 10
The following is (are) the machine down time.         

Options          
Waste
No material    
Breakdown    
All of the above

Question No.  8           Marks - 10
TQM & ISO both focuses on            

Options          
Customer        
Employee       
Supplier          
All of the above

Question No.  9           Marks - 10
According to Deming, Quality problems are

Options          
Due to management   
Due to method           
Due to machine          
Due to material

Question No.  10         Marks - 10
While setting Quality objective, ________ to be considered.           

Options          
Material quality          
Customer need           
Market demand          
All of the above

Question No.  11         Marks - 10
_______ helps organization reduce employee turnover and absenteeism.    

Options          
Job design      
Training & development        
Wage revision            
All of the above

Question No.  12         Marks - 10
CMM stands for        

Options          
Capability maturity model     
Capability monitoring model
Capability measuring model  
Capability matching model

Question No.  13         Marks - 10
While setting Quality objective, ________ to be considered.           

Options          
Customer need           
Organizational need   
Supplier need
Worker need

Question No.  14         Marks - 10
Which of the following is for Environment management?    

Options          
ISO-9000       
ISO-14000     
ISO-26000     
ISO-31000

Question No.  15         Marks - 10
What perspective does Crosby adopt when defining quality?          

Options          
Fitness for purpose is the key.
           
Quality must be defined subjectively.           
Setting and meeting specifications is the critical issue.         
All of these.

Question No.  16         Marks - 10
If "quality is free", why do authorities recognise that an improvement programme needs investment?       

Options          
There is an inevitable worsening of quality during periods of change.         
Reductions in prevention and appraisal costs lag behind investment in prevention.
It is never free.           
Zero defects is not possible.

Question No.  17         Marks - 10
Which of Lister's statements about poor service quality is incorrect?           

Options          
Being upset at treatment is the main reason given for stopping business.     
Satisfied customers tell fewer people of their experience than dissatisfied ones do.            
Each complaint may hide many unresolved problems.          
Among those who complain, few will do business again even though their complaints are handled effectively.

Question No.  18         Marks - 10
Which two of the following were not given as a weakness of product standards?  

Options          
Applied only to some aspects of a product or service           
Not recognised internationally           
Simplicity       
Limited scope

Question No.  19         Marks - 10
What does the term kaizen mean when applied to quality?  

Options          
The place where activity takes place  
Maintain a steady flow          
Continuous improvement       
Mutual dependence   


Question No.  20         Marks - 10
Which, according to our discussion, was not among the weaknesses of the 1987 and 1994 versions of ISO 9000?            

Options          
Weak links between product and process standards.            
Insufficient guidance on improvement.         
Including broad dimensions of customer satisfaction within the quality definition.            
Universality meant average.

Question No.  21         Marks - 10
Which of the following was not given as a key feature of Total Quality Management?      

Options          
Continuous improvement       
Establishing clear specifications        
Teamwork, trust and empowerment  
Identifying customers and their needs

Question No.  22         Marks - 10
What human factors did Dawson see as posing problems for the introduction of TQM?    

Options          
Over-educated staff   
TQM may make existing social tensions worse.        
Hierarchical structures           
Early enthusiasm may tail off quickly.

Question No.  23         Marks - 10
What do the initials of the PDCA cycle stand for?   

Options          
Purpose, develop, carry out, assess    
Plan, design, control, assess   
Plan, do, check, act    
Problem, diagnosis, conclusion, action

Question No.  24         Marks - 10
Name the practice of examining the best practices in an industry or in the world and using this knowledge as a basis for improvement.       

Options          
Divining         
Benchmarking            
Calibration     
Brainstorming

Question No.  25         Marks - 10
A control chart to record process performance usually identifies control limits and specification limits. Which one of the following is true?

Options          
 Control limits should equal specification limits to prevent any output outside specification.         
Control charts do not prevent poor quality output.   
Designers always set upper and lower limits.            
Control charts require complex statistical analysis to set them up.

Question No.  26         Marks - 10
Which item is not among the SERVQUAL dimensions?     

Options          
Reliability       
Tangibles        
Responsiveness          
Quality           


Question No.  27         Marks - 10
Which organisation defines self-assessment as ‘a comprehensive, systematic, and regular review of the organisation’s activities and results referenced against a model of business excellence’?   

Options          
ISO 9000       
Taguchi Institute        
European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM)     
International Quality Foundation

Question No.  28         Marks - 10
The concept of total quality control, i.e. that quality must be attended to at all stages of the industrial cycle and throughout the organisation, is the creation of which of the following pioneers?    

Options          
W Edwards Deming  
Genichi Taguchi         
Joseph M Juran          
Armand Feigenbaum

Question No.  29         Marks - 10
The so-called 'quality gurus' of total quality management (TQM) do NOT include which one of the following?   

Options          
Joseph M Juran          
Bill Cosby      
Kaoru Ishikawa          
W Edwards Deming

Question No.  30         Marks - 10
The specific concerns of total quality management (TQM) include a number of aspects. Which of the following is NOT normally associated with TQM?           

Options          
Covering all parts of the organisation            
Primarily a 'worker' rather than a management activity         
Inclusion of every person in the organisation            
Meeting the needs and expectations of customers    


Question No.  31         Marks - 10
The preferred method for achieving total quality in process output is to:     

Options          
Build and install an error-proof process and maintain it.       
Rely on a team of highly trained and dedicated inspectors.
Rely on operator self-inspection and self-correction.            
Perform inspection at the next process.

Question No.  32         Marks - 10
Total quality management (TQM) programmes are more likely to remain effective if a number of prescriptions are followed. Which of the following prescriptions should NOT be followed?

Options          
TQM does not become a separate 'bolt-on' set of activities.
TQM should become a substitute for normal managerial leadership.            
Quality improvement relates to an operation's performance objectives.        
Slogans and exhortations about TQM's effectiveness are avoided.

Question No.  33         Marks - 10
One of the most powerful aspects to emerge from TQM is the concept of the internal customer and supplier. This means that:     

Options          
It is the responsibility of the executive in charge of TQM to manage internal customer-supplier relationships.      
Every part of the organisation contributes to external customer satisfaction by satisfying its own internal customers.            
Service Level Agreements must be in place to ensure standards are met.     
The product or service must be inspected prior to its delivery to the external customer.      


Question No.  34         Marks - 10
Which of the following would NOT normally be considered as a ‘costs of quality’?          

Options          
Internal failure costs  
Prevention costs         
Marketing costs          
Inspection costs

Question No.  35         Marks - 10
Which one of the following would normally be considered as one of the ‘costs of quality’?          

Options          
Marketing costs          
Overhead costs          
Appraisal costs           
Transport costs

Question No.  36         Marks - 10
Which of the following is NOT noted as a disadvantage of Feigenbaum’s approach to total quality management?            

Options          
Does not discriminate between different kinds of quality context.  
Action plan and methodological principles are sometimes vague.    
Does not bring together the different management theories into one coherent whole.         
None of the above

Question No.  37         Marks - 10
TQM expands on earlier approaches to quality management. Which of the following is ordered correctly from earlier to later ideas?

Options          
Quality Control, Inspection, Quality Assurance, Total Quality Management           
Quality Assurance, Quality Control, Inspection, Total Quality Management           
Quality Assurance, Inspection, Quality Control, Total Quality Management           
Inspection, Quality Control, Quality Assurance, Total Quality Management           


Question No.  38         Marks - 10
What is the ‘Internal Service Rule’?  

Options          
Service to external customers never exceeds service to internal customers.  
Service to internal customers depends on the extent of communication with internal suppliers.     
Service to internal customers is the most important form of service.            
Service to internal customers depends on the culture of an organisation.

Question No.  39         Marks - 10
Some organisations bring a degree of formality to the internal customer concept by encouraging (or requiring) different parts of the operation to agree on:  

Options          
Formal provision agreements
Delivery agreements  
Internal service agreements    
Service level agreements


Question No.  40         Marks - 10
Which of the following is an example of a service level agreement (SLA) between an information systems support unit and a research unit in the laboratories of a large company?       

Options          
The maximum response time to get the system operational should it fail.    
The types of information that will be provided as standard .            
The minimum ‘up-time’.        
All of the above.








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